VATICAN SYRIAC CODEX: 22 -ANOTHER MANIPULATION?
The Syriac church historians promote Vatican Syriac Codex: 22 as one of their best evidences in support of East Syriac subjugation hypothesis. This is all about a note (writing) by a boy scribe on its colophon of a Syriac MSS named Vatican Codex 22.It has been stated that the codex copied in SHENGALA (Kodungalur) during AD 1301.
Let us understand the VATICAN CODEX 22. The codex gives us information about a metropolitan called Mar Jacob who ruled Malankara Nazranies from Kodungallur. The colophon of the said codex states it.
What exactly this colophon states? Let us understand this. “”” the holy book was written in the royal renowned and famous city of Chingla in Malabar in the time of the great captain and director of the holy catholic church of the east… our blessed and holy father Mar Yahd Alaha V and in the time of Bishop mar Jacob metropolitan and director of the see of the apostle Thoma, that is to say, our great captain and director of the entire church of Christian India”””(The rise and decline of Indian church of the ST.Thomas Christians By Placid J.Podipara Page 15)
The book is written in East Syriac script as reported by authors and deals with some prayers and epistle for the Sundays etc. there is a detailed description of it in”” The Syriac Manuscript of ST. Thomas Christians”” by J.P.M Van der ploeg o.p. “””””‘’’’according to its colophon it was copied in 1612 A. Gr. (=1301 AD) in the royal town of singala, in Malabar , in the country of India….. At the time of copyist the see of Mar Jacob, Bishop Metropolitan Superintendent (qayyoma) and ruler of the see of the holy apostle of Thomas………
On the first leaf, of the same time as the binding and added to the book, mention is made of Portuguese personalities, where as European hand of the 16th century wrote in Italian an indication of the contents……………. This followed by a small note in small ES(east syriac )script, attributed by L.d.V. to Mar Joseph (op.cit. P. 526; see also tavolaX,2)……….. This is followed in some what thicker characters by the Portuguese name Gela Fonseca. the pronunciation of which is secured by the addition of an Arabic gim under the g and fa under the p.the book may have been in the hand of the Portuguese and given by the pious Gela to Mar Joseph,who took it with him on his last journey to Rome. The copyist was a young boy of 14 yers already a deacon and called Zakharia bar Joseph bar Zakharia he knew syriac pretty well, though he denies he had any knowledge of the language. The later probably means that he could not speak it well, as older well instructed members of the clergy certainly could. Even in recent years I have met Jacobite priests who could speak syriac.His patriarch ,Katholicos Patriarch of the church of the east is called by him Yahballaha III, whereas in reality he was 5th of this name, while he gets from him the surname TurKaya= the Turk .He was an Uygur of the far east; the uygurs were Turkish stock and were considered as turks, a more common name.”””””””
“”””””The Syriac language also developed different scripts. The earliest Syriac inscriptions of the first and second centuries A.D. (all pagan) use a script similar to Palmyrene cursive writing. By the time of our earliest manuscripts (early fifth century A.D.) however, this script has taken on a more formalised character, known as Estrangelo (derived from Greek strongulos 'rounded'). The Estrangelo script continued to be used well into the middle ages. Furthermore, it enjoyed a dramatic local revival in Tur'Abdin in the twelve century. During the course of the eighth century there emerged, side by side with Estrangelo, a new and more compact script developed from Estrangelo correctly known as Serto (literally 'a scratch, character'). This is normally used by the West Syrians and the Maronites. A few centuries later, among the East Syrians, we see the gradual emergence from Estrangelo of the other distinctive script known as Eastern but generally called Nestorian script by European writers.””””” (Nestorian.org)
“””””””Western scholars divide the Syriac script into four branches, a) Old Syriac, hand produced (in mosaics, coins and handwritten documents), and dating from the 1stcentury to the 4th century; b) Estrangela, a developed form of book-hand Syriac that began appearing in copied religious manuscripts of the early 5th century; c) Serto, a more compact book-hand that took over from estrangela in the West Syriac region during the 8th century; and d) East Syriac, another distinctive book-hand that appeared within the ecclesiastical context of the Church of the East. This development paralleled the Serto of the West but appeared later during the 14th century. It is this last script that the American missionaries elaborated when they committed the spoken Eastern dialects to writing and printing in the Syriac script during the 19th century “””””””””(Coakley, 2006:4-16).
The earliest Syriac inscriptions of the ﬁrst and second centuries . (all pagan) employ a script with many similarities with Palmyrene cursive writing, but by the time of our earliest manuscripts (early ﬁ fth century .) this script has taken on a more formalized character, known as “Estrangelo” (from Greek strongulos, “rounded”). h e British Library preserves many superb pieces of calligraphy in this hand. Although the script continued to be used well into the Middle Ages (and indeed enjoyed a dramatic local revival in Tur Abdin in the twelfth century), during the course of the eighth century there emerged, side by side with it, a new and more compact script developed from estrangelo. h e correct name for this  new script is serto (literally “a scratch, character”), but in European works it is often designated “Jacobite,” since it became the normal script employed by the “Jacobites” (i.e. Syrian Orthodox); it is in fact also used by the Maronites as well. A few centuries later, among the East Syrians, we see the gradual emergence from estrangelo of the other distinctive Syriac script, today employed by Chaldeans and “Assyrians;” it is generally called the “Nestorian” or “Chaldean” script by European writers.( An introduction to syriac studies by Sebastian Brock)
Now on the light of the above information it is obvious that any Manuscript used East Syriac (Madnhaya) must be originated during the 14th century or later. That means if any portion or whole of the said manuscript used East Syriac script likely to be originated much later than the attributed period. That makes this manuscript suspicious. The other Portuguese manipulations (Portuguese names etc. ) also give a possibility of a forged document. But if the Manuscript is in Estrangelo with East Syriac dialects, then chances of genuineness can be proved provided the information supplied is correct with other records or traditions.
The manuscripts contain a lectionary for the readings of St Paul in the Eucharistic liturgy of Sundays, feasts and commemorations of the whole ecclesiastical year according to the rite of the church of Kokhe . Now this create some doubts because this lectionary was alien to Malankara as the Malankara was claimed (by the very propagators of this manuscript) to have relations with church of Fars. This is also goes against the usual Syriac MSS as reported by Van Der Ploeg. The church of Kokhe never played a major role as per the propagators of Persian subjugation of Malankara Nazranies.
When we analyze the content of information provided by the manuscript arouse many doubts. The first one is about the historical veracity of the Catholicos of Seleucia Yahballaha V. The script copier clearly wrote that he copied the said script at the time of Yahballaha V as per the historians . In order to make the document historical church historians explains that the Boy script writer by mistake wrote as Yahaballah V. Please be noted that the Vander Ploeg explains this with Following words .Read it yourself from Fr. Vadakkekara Benadict
But please also take time to read the same Van Der ploeg explains more when he discuss the codex 22 in detail
‘””””””””The book may have been in the hands of the Portuguese and given by the pious Gela to Mar Joseph, who took it with him on his last journey to Rome. The copyist was a young boy of 14 years, already a deacon and called Zakharya bar Joseph bar Zakharya ; he knew Syriac pretty well, though he denies he had any knowledge of the language. The latter probably means that he could not speak it well, as older well-instructed members of the clergy certainly could. Even in recent years I have met Jacobite priests who could speak Syriac. His Patriarch, “Katholikos-Patriarch” of the Church of the East is called by him Yahballaha III, whereas in reality he was the 5th of this name, while he gets from him the surname Tûrkaya = the Turk. He was an Uighur of the Far East ; the Uighurs were of Turkish stock and were considered as “Turks”, a more common name. “”””( Link has already given)
Now tell me which is the correct explanation?
Now, let me take you for an evening walk with me through the pages of east syriac Christianity. I have always admired people with great caliber in accepting truth in spite of beliefs and opposite views. I want to introduce a great personality called BAR EBRAYO who lived during the time of Uygur Katholicos called Yahballah III. This great Catholicos of Syriac Orthodox (Madnhaya syriacs) was a historian, Philosopher, Mathematician, Teacher etc. what not? Some of the typical propagandist historians tried to paint him a partisan .The scholars like Wigram despite all his efforts in the opposite direction failed to suggest anything concrete against him. It is surprising to note that the Great Wigram himself noted that many of his historical statements are correct when compared with cotemporary Nestorian historian like IBN-AL-TAYIB.
This great Catholicos (Mafrian) was a good friend of our KATHANAYAKAN Uygur Catholicos of Nestorian church. Read from the link
plz read page 249-256(necessary) ,but suggest whole chapter.
Now this scholar wrote Christian history of the east extensively, not a word about the relation ship of Metropolitan see of Malankara! I don’t think he was a partisan since he wrote about Nestorian church. That is why I question the Vatican codex 22.
Now I want you to free wheel with me in search of historical truth. Was there any Catholicos named as Yabhallaha V in history? Let us check?
Now it is our duty to find out the details of this Yahballah V from so called conventional church historians. Also plz search for details of Portuguese relations with Nestorian unites!
Quite interesting, isn’t it? That is why I like History very much.